Influence of glucose and insulin in human adipogenic differentiation models with adipose-derived stem cells.
Autologous fat grafting represents an attractive source for tissue engineering applications in the field of reconstructive medicine. However, in adipogenic differentiation protocols for human adipose-derived stem cells, the concentration of glucose and insulin varies considerably. With the intent to gain maximum tissue augmentation, we focused on the late phase of adipogenesis. In this study, we modified the differentiation protocol for adipose-derived stem cells by prolongation of the induction period and the application highly concentrated glucose and insulin. Human adipose-derived stem cells were isolated from subcutaneous depots and differentiated in a standard induction medium for the first two weeks, followed by two weeks with varying glucose and insulin concentrations. Morphological changes assessed using Oil-Red-O staining were examined for corresponding alterations in the expression of the adipogenic markers peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma) and lipoprotein lipase (LPL). Furthermore, glucose and lactate levels in conditioned media were monitored over the period of differentiation. We found high-glucose media increasing the level of lipid accumulation and the size of single droplets whereas insulin significantly showed a dose-dependent negative effect on fat storage. However, whereas high glucose stimulated PPARgamma transcription, expression levels in insulin-treated cells remained constant. Results permit assumptions that a high-glucose medium intensifies the degree of differentiation in mature adipocytes providing conditions to promote graft volume while we have identified highly concentrated insulin treatment as an inhibitor of lipid storage in the late adipogenic differentiation