The Impact of Immunomodulatory Treatment on Kappa Free Light Chains as Biomarker in Neuroinflammation.
BACKGROUND:Kappa free light chains (KFLC) are a promising new biomarker to detect neuroinflammation. Still, the impact of pre-analytical effects on KFLC concentrations was not investigated. METHODS:KFLC concentrations were measured in serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of patients with a newly diagnosed multiple sclerosis (MS) or clinically isolated syndrome (CIS) before (n = 42) or after therapy with high-dose methylprednisolone (n = 65). In prospective experiments, KFLC concentrations were analyzed in the same patients in serum before and after treatment with high-dose methylprednisolone (n = 16), plasma exchange (n = 12), immunoadsorption (n = 10), or intravenous immunoglobulins (n = 10). In addition, the influence of storage time, sample method, and contamination of CSF with blood were investigated. RESULTS:Patients diagnosed with MS/CIS and treated with methylprednisolone showed significantly lower KFLC concentrations in serum as untreated patients. Repeated longitudinal investigations revealed that serum KFLC concentrations continuously decreased after each application of methylprednisolone. In contrast, other immune therapies and further pre-analytical conditions did not influence KFLC concentrations. CONCLUSION:Our results show prominent effects of steroids on KFLC concentrations. In contrast, various other pre-analytical conditions did not influence KFLC concentrations, indicating the stability of this biomarker.