Influence of Timing and Predicted Risk on Mortality in Impella-Treated Infarct-Related Cardiogenic Shock Patients.
Background: In-hospital mortality in acute myocardial infarction-related cardiogenic shock (AMI-CS) remains high. The only adequately powered randomized trial showed no benefit of routine use of the intra-aortic balloon pump in AMI-CS. We compared individually predicted mortality using CardShock- and IABP-Shock II-scores in AMI-CS patients treated with an Impella microaxial pump, who met the IABP-Shock II-trials inclusion/exclusion criteria, to observed mortality on circulatory support in order to determine whether standardized use of an Impella microaxial flow-pump in AMI-CS is associated with lower than predicted mortality rates and whether timing of implantation or selecting patients based on predicted risk is meaningful. Methods and Results: We analyzed data from 166 consecutive Impella-treated AMI-CS patients meeting the inclusion/exclusion criteria of the IABP-Shock II-trial (age 64 ± 11 years). Thirty-nine percentage of 64 patients had been resuscitated before Impella implantation. Overall 30-day mortality was 42%. Mortality was higher in resuscitated patients (50 vs. 36%, p = 0.0452) and when Impella was implanted post-PCI (Impella-pre-PCI: 28%, Impella-post-PCI: 51%, p = 0.0039). While in both score systems there was no significant difference between predicted and observed overall 30-day mortality, predicted mortality was significantly higher than observed mortality on Impella support only for individuals with highest predicted risk based on CardShock score (predicted 77 vs. observed 51%, p = 0.025). Conclusions: Our retrospective analysis suggests that the use of the Impella microaxial pump may be effective in selected cases of high risk patients with AMI-CS. Condensed abstract: Mortality is high in acute myocardial infarction-related cardiogenic shock despite rapid revascularization. Haemodynamic support with an intraortic balloon pump does not reduce mortality. In this retrospective registry including 166 consecutive IABP-Shock II-eligible cardiogenic shock patients in four dedicated shock centers, observed mortality on circulatory support with an Impella was significantly lower than predicted in patients with highest mortality risk. Implantation prior to PCI in acute myocardial infarction-related cardiogenic shock seemed to be associated with lower mortality than implantation post PCI.