Genetic Susceptibility to Endometrial Cancer : Risk Factors and Clinical Management.
Endometrial cancer (EC) is the most common cancer affecting the female reproductive organs in higher-income states. Apart from reproductive factors and excess weight, genetic predisposition is increasingly recognized as a major factor in endometrial cancer risk. Endometrial cancer is genetically heterogeneous: while a subgroup of patients belongs to cancer predisposition syndromes (most notably the Lynch Syndrome) with high to intermediate lifetime risks, there are also several common genomic polymorphisms contributing to the spectrum of germline predispositions. Germline variants and somatic events may act in concert to modulate the molecular evolution of the tumor, where mismatch-repair deficiency is common in endometrioid endometrial tumors whereas homologous recombinational repair deficiency has been described for non-endometrioid endometrial tumors. In this review, we will survey the currently known genomic predispositions for endometrial cancer and discuss their relevance for clinical management in terms of counseling, screening and novel treatments.