Anti-Tumor Effects of Exosomes Derived from Drug-Incubated Permanently Growing Human MSC.
Similar to growth-limited human primary cultures of mesenchymal stroma/stem-like cells (MSC), the continuously proliferating human MSC544 cell line produced extracellular vesicles as characterized by expression of the tetraspanin molecules CD9, CD63, and CD81. Release of these particles was predominantly detectable during continuous cell growth of MSC544 in contrast to confluency-mediated transient growth arrest. For therapeutic use, these particles were isolated from proliferating MSC544 after taxol treatment and applied to different cancer cell cultures. A pronounced cytotoxicity of lung, ovarian, and breast cancer cells was observed primarily with taxol-loaded exosomes, similar to the effects displayed by application of taxol substance. While these findings suggested pronounced cancer cell targeting of MSC544 exosomes, a tumor therapeutic approach was performed using a mouse in vivo breast cancer model. Thus, intravenous injection of taxol-loaded MSC544 exosomes displayed superior tumor-reducing capabilities as compared to application of taxol exosomes by oral gavage. To broaden this therapeutic spectrum, epirubicin was applied to MSC544, and the derived exosomes likewise exhibited significant cytotoxic effects in different cancer cell cultures. These findings suggest an unlimited source for large-scale exosome production with reproducible quality to enable variable drug targeting of tumors or other diseases.