Cell Type-Specific Adhesion and Migration on Laser-Structured Opaque Surfaces
Cytocompatibility is essential for implant approval. However, initial in vitro screenings mainly include the quantity of adherent immortalized cells and cytotoxicity. Other vital parameters, such as cell migration and an in-depth understanding of the interaction between native tissue cells and implant surfaces, are rarely considered. We investigated different laser-fabricated spike structures using primary and immortalized cell lines of fibroblasts and osteoblasts and included quantification of the cell area, aspect ratio, and focal adhesions. Furthermore, we examined the three-dimensional cell interactions with spike topographies and developed a tailored migration assay for long-term monitoring on opaque materials. While fibroblasts and osteoblasts on small spikes retained their normal morphology, cells on medium and large spikes sank into the structures, affecting the composition of the cytoskeleton and thereby changing cell shape. Up to 14 days, migration appeared stronger on small spikes, probably as a consequence of adequate focal adhesion formation and an intact cytoskeleton, whereas human primary cells revealed differences in comparison to immortalized cell lines. The use of primary cells, analysis of the cell-implant structure interaction as well as cell migration might strengthen the evaluation of cytocompatibility and thereby improve the validity regarding the putative in vivo performance of implant material.