Infection control measures in nosocomial MRSA outbreaks-Results of a systematic analysis.
There is a lack of data on factors that contribute to the implementation of hygiene measures during nosocomial outbreaks (NO) caused by Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Therefore, we first conducted a systematic literature analysis to identify MRSA outbreak reports. The expenditure for infection control in each outbreak was then evaluated by a weighted cumulative hygiene score (WCHS). Effects of factors on this score were determined by multivariable linear regression analysis. 104 NO got included, mostly from neonatology (n = 32), surgery (n = 27), internal medicine and burn units (n = 10 each), including 4,361 patients (thereof 657 infections and 73 deaths) and 279 employees. The outbreak sources remained unknown in 10 NO and were not reported from further 61 NO. The national MRSA prevalence did not correlate with the WCHS (p = .714). There were significant WCHS differences for internal medicine (p = 0.014), burn units (p<0.01), for Japanese NO (p<0.01), and NO with an unknown source (p<0.01). In sum, management of a NO due to MRSA does not depend on the local MRSA burden. However, differences of MRSA management among medical departments do exist. Strict adherence to the Outbreak Reports and Intervention Studies Of Nosocomial infection (ORION) statement is highly recommended for. The WCHS may also serve as a useful tool to quantify infection control effort and could therefore be used for further investigations.