In Vivo Lentiviral Gene Delivery of HLA-DR and Vaccination of Humanized Mice for Improving the Human T and B Cell Immune Reconstitution
Humanized mouse models generated with human hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) and reconstituting the human immune system (HIS-mice) are invigorating preclinical testing of vaccines and immunotherapies. We have recently shown that human engineered dendritic cells boosted bonafide human T and B cell maturation and antigen-specific responses in HIS-mice. Here, we evaluated a cell-free system based on in vivo co-delivery of lentiviral vectors (LVs) for expression of a human leukocyte antigen (HLA-DRA*01/ HLA-DRB1*0401 functional complex, "DR4"), and a LV vaccine expressing human cytokines (GM-CSF and IFN-α) and a human cytomegalovirus gB antigen (HCMV-gB). Humanized NOD/Rag1null/IL2Rγnull (NRG) mice injected by i.v. with LV-DR4/fLuc showed long-lasting (up to 20 weeks) vector distribution and expression in the spleen and liver. In vivo administration of the LV vaccine after LV-DR4/fLuc delivery boosted the cellularity of lymph nodes, promoted maturation of terminal effector CD4+ T cells, and promoted significantly higher development of IgG+ and IgA+ B cells. This modular lentigenic system opens several perspectives for basic human immunology research and preclinical utilization of LVs to deliver HLAs into HIS-mice.