CAMT-MPL : congenital amegakaryocytic thrombocytopenia caused by MPL mutations - heterogeneity of a monogenic disorder - a comprehensive analysis of 56 patients.
Congenital amegakaryocytic thrombocytopenia caused by deleterious homozygous or compound heterozygous mutations in MPL (CAMT-MPL) is a rare inherited bone marrow failure syndrome presenting as an isolated thrombocytopenia at birth progressing to pancytopenia due to exhaustion of hematopoietic progenitors. The analysis of samples and clinical data from a large cohort of 56 patients with CAMT-MPL resulted in a detailed description of the clinical picture and reliable genotype-phenotype correlations for this rare disease. We extended the spectrum of CAMT causing MPL mutations regarding number (17 novel mutations) and impact. The clinical courses showed a great variability with respect to the severity of thrombocytopenia, the development of pancytopenia and the consequences from bleedings. The most severe clinical problems were (1) intracranial bleedings pre- and perinatally and the resulting long-term consequences, and (2) the development of aplastic anemia in the later course of the disease. An important and new finding was that thrombocytopenia was not detected at birth in a quarter of the patients. The rate of non-hematological abnormalities in CAMT-MPL was higher than described so far. Most of the anomalies were related to the head region (brain anomalies, ocular and orbital anomalies) and consequences of intracranial bleedings. The present study demonstrates a higher variability of clinical courses than described so far and has important implications on diagnosis and therapy. The diagnosis CAMT-MPL has to be considered even for those patients who are inconspicuous in the first months of life or show somatic anomalies typical for other inherited bone marrow failure syndromes.