Bacterial-Specific Induction of Inflammatory Cytokines Significantly Decreases upon Dual Species Infections of Implant Materials with Periodontal Pathogens in a Mouse Model.
Cytokine profiles are often perturbed after infections of medical implants. With a non-invasive in vivo imaging system, we report in a mouse model that interferon expression after infection of subcutaneous implants with Streptococcus oralis, Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Porphyromonas gingivalis, and Treponema denticola (alone or as a combination) was species-specific, persisted longer in the presence of implants, and notably decreased upon dual species infections. This type I interferon expression disappeared within two weeks; however, histology of implant-tissue interface indicated high recruitment of immune cells even after three weeks. This was suggestive that biomaterial-associated infections could have prolonged effects, including the systemic stimulation of inflammatory cytokines. The present study investigated the systemic impact of this chronic peri-implant inflammation on the systemic expression of inflammatory cytokines (23) using a multiplex assay. Initially, the cytokine measurement in murine fibroblasts exposed to periodontal pathogens remained limited to the expression of five cytokines, namely, IL-6, G-CSF, CXCL-1/KC, MCP-1 (MCAF), and IL-12 (p40). The systemic determination of cytokines in mice increased to 19 cytokines (IL-1α, IL-2, IL-3, IL-5, IL-6, IL-9, IL-12 (p40), IL-12 (p70), IL-13, IL-17A, CCL-11/Eotaxin, G-CSF, IFN-γ, CXCL1/KC, MCP-1 (MCAF), MIP-1α/CCL3, MIP-1β/CCL4, CCL5/RANTES, and TNF-α). Systemic induction of cytokines was species-specific in the mouse model. The cytokine induction from infected implants differed significantly from sole tissue infections and sterile implants. Notably, systemic cytokine induction decreased after infections with dual species compared to single species infections. These findings describe the systemic effect of chronic peri-implant inflammation on the systemic induction of inflammatory cytokines, and this effect was strongly correlated to the type and composition of initial infection. Systemic modulations in cytokine expression upon dual species infections exhibit an exciting pattern that might explain the complications associated with biomaterial-related infection in patients. Moreover, these findings validate the requirement of multispecies infections for pre-clinical studies involving animal models.