Clinical and Microbiological Effects of an Antimicrobial Stewardship Program in Urology : a Single Center Before-After Study.
Antimicrobial resistance is a major public health issue caused by antibiotic overuse and misuse. Antimicrobial stewardship (AMS) has been increasingly endorsed worldwide, but its effect has been studied scarcely in urologic settings. A before-after study was performed from 2018 through 2020 to evaluate changes in antimicrobial prescription, resistance rates and clinical safety upon implementation of an AMS audit and feedback program in the Urology Department of a large German academic medical center. The primary endpoints were safety clinical outcomes: the rate of infection-related readmissions and of infectious complications after transrectal prostate biopsies. Resistance rates and antimicrobial consumption rates were the secondary endpoints. The AMS team reviewed 196 cases (12% of all admitted in the department). The overall antibiotic use dropped by 18.7%. Quinolone prescriptions sank by 78.8% (p = 0.02) and 69.8% (p > 0.05) for ciprofloxacin and levofloxacin, respectively. The resistance rate of E. coli isolates declined against ceftriaxone (-9%), ceftazidime (-12%) and quinolones (-25%) in the AMS period. No significant increase in infection-related readmissions or infectious complications after prostate biopsies was observed (p = 0.42). Due to the potential to reduce antibiotic use and resistance rates with no surge of infection-related complications, AMS programs should be widely implemented in urologic departments.