Kappa Free Light Chains in Cerebrospinal Fluid in Inflammatory and Non-Inflammatory Neurological Diseases.
Oligoclonal bands represent intrathecal immunoglobulin G (IgG) synthesis and play an important role in the diagnosis of multiple sclerosis (MS). Kappa free light chains (KFLC) are increasingly recognized as an additional biomarker for intrathecal Ig synthesis. However, there are limited data on KFLC in neurological diseases other than MS. This study, conducted at two centers, retrospectively enrolled 346 non-MS patients. A total of 182 patients were diagnosed with non-inflammatory and 84 with inflammatory neurological diseases other than MS. A further 80 patients were classified as symptomatic controls. Intrathecal KFLC production was determined using different approaches: KFLC index, Reiber's diagram, Presslauer's exponential curve, and Senel's linear curve. Matching results of oligoclonal bands and KFLC (Reiber's diagram) were frequently observed (93%). The Reiber's diagram for KFLC detected intrathecal KFLC synthesis in an additional 7% of the patient samples investigated (4% non-inflammatory; 3% inflammatory), which was not found by oligoclonal band detection. The determination of both biomarkers (KFLC and oligoclonal bands) is recommended for routine diagnosis and differentiation of non-inflammatory and inflammatory neurological diseases. Due to the high sensitivity and physiological considerations, the assessment of KFLC in the Reiber's diagram should be preferred to other evaluation methods.