GC-MS Studies on the Conversion and Derivatization of γ-Glutamyl Peptides to Pyroglutamate (5-Oxo-Proline) Methyl Ester Pentafluoropropione Amide Derivatives.
Glutathione (γ-L-glutamyl-L-cysteinyl-glycine, γ-Glu-Cys-Gly) is the most abundant intra-cellular dicarboxylic tripeptide with multiple physiological roles. In biological samples, glutathione exists in its reduced form GSH and in two stable oxidized forms, i.e., in its symmetric disulfide form GSSG and as S-glutathionyl residue in proteins. S-Glutathionylation is a post-translational modification, which is involved in several pathophysiological processes, including oxidative stress. The GSH-to-GSSG molar ratio is widely used as a measure of oxidative stress. γ-Glutamyl is the most characteristic structural moiety of GSH. We performed gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) studies for the development of a highly specific qualitative and quantitative method for γ-glutamyl peptides. We discovered intra-molecular conversion of GSH, GSSG, γ-Glu-Cys and of ophthalmic acid (OPH; γ-glutamyl-α-amino-n-butyryl-glycine) to pyroglutamate (pGlu; 5-oxo-proline, also known as pidolic acid) during their derivatization with 2 M HCl/CH3OH (60 min, 80 °C). For GC-MS analysis, the methyl esters (Me) were further derivatized with pentafluoropropionic (PFP) anhydride in ethyl acetate (1:4, v/v; 30 min, 65 °C) to their PFP derivatives. At longer reaction times, pGlu is hydrolyzed to Glu. Internal standards were prepared by derivatizing GSH, GSSG, γ-Glu-Cys and OPH in 2 M HCl/CD3OD. Quantification of the Me-PFP derivative of pGlu was performed in the electron-capture negative-ion chemical ionization (ECNICI) mode by selected-ion monitoring (SIM) of the mass-to-charge (m/z) ions 269 for unlabeled pGlu (d0Me-PFP-pGlu) and m/z 272 for the in situ prepared deuterium-labeled pGlu (d3Me-PFP-pGlu). Although not inherent to the analysis of small peptides, the present GC-MS method is useful to study several biochemical aspects of GSH. Using pentafluorobenzyl bromide (PFB-Br) as the derivatization reagent, we found that synthetic pGlu is converted in aqueous acetone (60 min, 50 °C) into its pentafluorobenzyl (PFB) ester (PFB-pGlu). This derivatization procedure is useful for the GC-MS analysis of free pGlu in the ECNICI mode. Quantitative analysis of PFB-pGlu by GC-MS requires the use of stable-isotope labeled analogs of pGlu as an internal standard.